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Effects of anaerobic exercise and aerobic exercise on biomarkers of oxidative stress

Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine Volume 12, Number 5 / September, 2007
Minyi SHI, Xin Wang, Takao Yamanaka, Futoshi Ogita, Koji Nakatani and Toru Takeuchi

Abstract
Objectives  In addition to having health-promoting effects, exercise is considered to induce oxidative stress. To clarify whether increased oxygen consumption during exercise induces oxidative stress, we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise on a series of oxidative damage markers. Methods  One group of subjects performed aerobic exercise and another group performed anaerobic exercise with similar workloads, but with different levels of oxygen consumption. Blood and urine samples were collected before, immediately after, and 3, 9, and 24 h after exercise. Serum uric acid (UA) and creatine phosphokinase were evaluated. As markers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, we evaluated serum 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, urinary F2-isoprostanes, serum protein carbonyls, and leukocyte 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine.

Results  
Oxygen consumption was significantly greater during aerobic exercise. Although UA level increased immediately after aerobic exercise and decreased thereafter, UA level did not change after anaerobic exercise. The two types of exercise had significantly different effects on the change in UA level. After anaerobic exercise, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal significantly increased at 24 h and 3 h, respectively. The levels of creatine phosphokinase and F2-isoprostanes decreased after exercise. The two types of exercise caused no apparent significant differences in the levels of these biomarkers.
 
Conclusion  The findings suggest that similar workloads of anaerobic exercise and aerobic exercise induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) differently: aerobic exercise seems to initially generate more ROS, whereas anaerobic exercise may induce prolonged ROS generation. Although more oxygen was consumed during aerobic exercise, the generated ROS did not induce significant oxidative damage. Oxygen consumption per se may not be the major cause of exercise-induced oxidative damage.

 

Mortality and longevity of elite athletes.

Teramoto M, Bungum TJ.J Sci Med Sport. 2009 Jun 30.
Department of Sports Education Leadership, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA.

The health benefits of leisure-time physical activity are well known, however the effects of engaging in competitive sports on health are uncertain. This literature review examines mortality and longevity of elite athletes and attempts to understand the association between long-term vigorous exercise training and survival rates. Fourteen articles of epidemiological studies were identified and classified by type of sport. Life expectancy, standardised mortality ratio, standardised proportionate mortality ratio, mortality rate, and mortality odds ratio for all causes of death were used to analyse mortality and longevity of elite athletes. It appears that elite endurance (aerobic) athletes and mixed-sports (aerobic and anaerobic) athletes survive longer than the general population, as indicated by lower mortality and higher longevity. Lower cardiovascular disease mortality is likely the primary reason for their better survival rates. On the other hand, there are inconsistent results among studies of power (anaerobic) athletes. When elite athletes engaging in various sports are analysed together, their mortality is lower than that of the general population. In conclusion, long-term vigorous exercise training is associated with increased survival rates of specific groups of athletes.


 acid, mortality aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, oxidative stress, uric

 
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