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Aerobic exercises and lifespan

You may have heard the advice "If you exercise, you'll live longer." The good news -- or the bad news, if you hate doing anything more active than downloading iTunes -- is that it's true.Research backs this up. A 2007 study in the Journal of the American Medical Assn. found that fitter people lived longer, even if they had extra pounds around the middle. Among 2,603 adults 60 and older enrolled in that longitudinal study, the fittest people (those who did best on a treadmill test) also had the lowest risk factors for hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol.Most of the negative changes to our bodies over time can be chalked up to two things, says Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, head of the department of kinesiology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: normal aging and disease-related aging (that is, changes accelerated by illnesses and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease). Exercise, he says, can reduce the severity of both types. Strength maintenance: Normal aging results in a gradual loss of muscle mass (about 1% a year) that begins in middle age.

Strength-training can offset this loss, called sarcopenia, Chodzko-Zajko says. "The link between functionality and longevity may be indirect but more muscle mass allows you to be ambulatory and maintain function, whereas in a wheelchair you can't."

Having stronger muscles -- especially leg muscles -- and better balance may mean fewer falls, a leading cause of death among the elderly, according to the American Geriatrics Society. Cardiovascular health: Over time, arteries become stiffer, paving the way for cardiovascular disease. The chemical composition of the artery walls begins to shift, says Douglas Seals, a professor in the department of integrative physiology at the University of Colorado, making the walls more rigid.

"That stiffening of the arteries can cause changes in your blood pressure," putting extra stress on the heart, Seals adds. Regular aerobic exercise, he says, slows or reverses some of the changes.

Diabetes risk: As we age, blood-glucose control becomes less robust, making us more insulin-resistant and increasingly susceptible to diabetes. People also tend to gain weight as they age, further upping the chances for developing the disease.

During aerobic exercise, muscles take up glucose from the blood and use it for fuel, keeping the body's blood sugar levels low. Exercise also causes the pancreas to decrease production of insulin. Continuous, steady exercise especially causes the liver to take lactic acid, amino acids and fats and turn them into glucose, further feeding the muscles and regulating blood sugar levels.

Inflammation control: Inflammation can also worsen as we age and become exacerbated by extra weight, upping the risk for cardiovascular disease, lowering the immune system and paving the way for bacteria and viruses to take hold -- even cancer cells to grow. But exercise may cause a decrease in levels of C-reactive protein, a marker for inflammation.

Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution.

Source: http://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/abstract/S1550-4131(16)30003-1#
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.01.011showArticle Info

Summary

Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms behind this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, tumor-bearing mice randomized to voluntary wheel running showed over 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across five different tumor models. Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed that NK cells were mobilized by epinephrine, and blockade of β-adrenergic signaling blunted training-dependent tumor inhibition. Moreover, epinephrine induced a selective mobilization of IL-6-sensitive NK cells, and IL-6-blocking antibodies blunted training-induced tumor suppression, intratumoral NK cell infiltration, and NK cell activation. Together, these results link exercise, epinephrine, and IL-6 to NK cell mobilization and redistribution, and ultimately to control of tumor growth.

Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review.
Obes Rev. 2009 Sep 9. 
Fogelholm M.
The Academy of Finland, Health Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
Summary: The purpose of this systematic review was to study the relative health risks of poor cardio-respiratory fitness (or physical inactivity) in normal-weight people vs. obesity in individuals with good cardio-respiratory fitness (or high physical activity). The core inclusion criteria were: publication year 1990 or later; adult participants; design prospective follow-up, case-control or cross-sectional; data on cardio-respiratory fitness and/or physical activity; data on BMI (body mass index), waist circumference or body composition; outcome data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Thirty-six publications filled the criteria for inclusion. The data indicate that the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was lower in individuals with high BMI and good aerobic fitness, compared with individuals with normal BMI and poor fitness. In contrast,having high BMI even with high physical activity was a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, compared with normal BMI with low physical activity. The conclusions of the present review may not be applicable to individuals with BMI > 35., exercises, cooper, bmi, fitness, mortality, aerobic, cardio, sarcopenia.
Exercise helpful for lymphoma patients – says researchers:
Researchers at University of Alberta have found that daily exercise can prove to be helpful for lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy. A three year study shows significant improvements in physical functioning and overall quality of life benefits in patients with lymphoma. 122 participants with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were included for this study. They were distributed in groups by disease type and treatment status that whether they were undergoing chemotherapy at the time or receiving no treatments.

Participants were randomly assigned to an exercise program designed to maximize cardiovascular fitness. The participants were asked to under go exercise three times a week that lasts for almost twelve weeks. Lymphoma patients who received the exercise intervention reported significant improvement in physical functioning, overall quality of life, less fatigue, increased happiness, less depression and an improvement in lean body mass. The group receiving chemotherapy benefited as much as the group that was off the treatments.
 

Kerry Courneya, Canada Research Chair in physical activity and cancer in the Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation who led this study said that vigorous intensity exercise program did not interfere with lymphoma patients ability to complete their chemotherapy treatments. He further added to found that 46.4 per cent of patients in the exercise group had a complete response to their treatment compared to only 30.8 per cent in the usual care group.

 

 
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